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1.9. Diagnostics of malfunctions

The description of diagnostics of electronic control systems and diagnostic codes are provided in the Head Sistemy of electric equipment of the engine.

In this Section the simplest scheme of clarification of the reasons of the malfunctions and refusals happening in knots and systems of the vehicle is offered. Refusals and their possible reasons are broken into groups on a sign of the relation to certain components or systems of the car as, for example the engine, the cooling system, etc., besides, in the text are given the references concerning these problems.

Remember that the successful completion of search of causes of defect is not the black magic available only to skilled professional mechanics at all, and is defined by a combination of a certain knowledge and patient, systematic approach to a problem research. It is necessary to move always from simple to difficult, to bring each check to the logical end and to try not to pass the obvious facts - everyone can forget to fill fuel in the fuel tank or to leave included in lighting fixtures for the night.

And at last, it is always necessary to try to make a clear picture of development of malfunction and to take the corresponding steps for prevention of a recurrence. If the failure of electric equipment happened for a cause of infringement of quality of contact, check a condition of all other contacts and electric sockets of system at the same time. If the same safety lock several times in a row continues to fuse, there is no sense in its further replacement - it is necessary to try to find out a cause of failure. Remember that failure of a minor component can be a sign of violation of functioning of more important knot or the whole system.

Engine

If the engine is not started, it is necessary to analyse a situation. That the petrol engine in general could be started, two main conditions have to be satisfied. Fuel-air mix has to come to cylinders, and on a spark plug the spark has to be developed. Therefore, first, it is necessary to check whether fuel moves. Address the Head of the Power supply system, release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

To define whether the spark is developed, it is necessary to turn out candles, to insert into tips and to put separately to weight. At the same time you do not hold a tip or a cable of ignition with hands, and use well isolated nippers. Ask the assistant to start the engine. If the spark is absent, address the Head Sistemy of electric equipment of the engine.

Procedures of diagnostics of an electronic control system and codes of malfunctions are provided in the Head Sistemy of electric equipment of the engine.

Start of the engine

All engines

- RKPP: Tighten the parking brake, completely squeeze out a pedal of coupling and you hold it. Establish the check point in neutral situation. The switched-off coupling facilitates start of the engine, especially at low external temperatures since at the same time there is no friction from the check point.

- Automatic transmission: Install the selector in situation "P" or "N". Press a pedal of a brake and you hold it.

Do not include a starter more than 30 with continuously, otherwise the starter and cables overheat.

Petrol engine

Diesel engine

- On the cold engine: Include ignition and wait when the control lamp of preheat goes out. At once after the control lamp went out, start the engine, without giving at the same time gas. If at start there are irregular flashes, include a starter until then (at most 20 c) until the engine begins to work independently. If after all the engine is not started, turn the ignition key in situation "0" and wait for about 30 pages. After that once again warm up the engine and repeat start as it is described above.

While preheat is made, it is not necessary to include powerful electric consumers, otherwise the rechargeable battery without need is overloaded.

The diesel engine with direct injection, as a rule, demands use of preheat only at a temperature below 0 °C.

If the fuel tank was completely emptied, then process of start after gas station lasts longer (up to 1 min.) since at the same time air from fuel system is removed.

- On the warm engine preheat is not required. Start the engine at once, without giving gas.

The engine is not turned in start attempts

The engine is turned, but not started

Diesel engine

The starter functions without engine provorachivaniye

Start of the cold engine is complicated

Start of the hot engine is complicated

Gearing of a starter happens is too noisy or with difficulty

The engine is started, but immediately becomes deaf

Stability of operation of the engine on single turns is broken

Diesel engine

Admissions of ignition take place during the operation of the engine on single turns

Admissions of ignition at the movement of the car on transfer take place

The engine becomes deaf

The engine does not develop full capacity

In addition for the diesel engine

There are cottons in system of an admission or shots in system of release

At the movement with acceleration or uphill there are detonation sounds

Kalilny ignition takes place (the engine continues to work after switching off of ignition)

The diesel engine smokes

Engine electric equipment

Procedures of diagnostics of an electronic control system and codes of malfunctions are provided in the Head Sistemy of electric equipment of the engine.

The battery does not "hold" a charge

The control lamp of charging does not die away at increase in turns

The control lamp of charging does not light up at inclusion of ignition

The control lamp of charging burns after switching off of ignition

Starter

If the starter does not turn, at first it is necessary to check that on the plug of the 50th traction relay there was necessary tension of at least 10 Century. If tension is lower than this value, it is necessary to check according to the scheme of a wire, entering a starter current contour.

Whether the starter works at a full tension of the battery, it is possible to check as follows.

- Not including transfers, include ignition.
- Close starter plugs 30 and 50 a wire of section at least 4 mm2, address also materials of the Head Sistema of electric equipment of the engine.

If the starter works faultlessly, the cause of defect should be looked for in wires to a starter. If the starter does not earn, it should be checked in the removed state.

Check condition: In places of connection of a wire have to be well fixed and should not be oxidized.

The starter does not rotate at turning on of the lock of ignition

The starter rotates slowly and does not turn the crankshaft

The starter grabs and rotates the engine breakthroughs

The gear wheel of a starter does not depart from a wreath

The starter continues to work after an ignition key otpuskaniye

System of electronic control

The cold engine does not enter the warming up mode

The heated-up engine does not leave the warming up mode, or fuel consumption is increased

The engine pulls

The electronic control system of acceleration (EA) passed into emergency operation

Power supply system

Fuel consumption is excessive

Diesel engine

Leak of fuel takes place and/or there is a gasoline smell

The engine is not started

The cold engine is started badly, works unstably

The warm engine is started badly, works unstably

The engine works with interruptions

The engine works with interruptions on the transitional modes and the mode of idling

The hot engine is not started

The engine works after switching off

Lubrication system

The control lamp does not burn after inclusion of ignition

The control lamp does not die away after start of the engine

The control lamp does not die away after supply of gas or lights up during the movement

Too low pressure of oil on all turns

Too low pressure of oil on small turns

Too high pressure of oil at speed over 2000 rpm

Cooling system

Overheat

Overcooling

External leak of liquid

Internal leak of liquid

Internal leak of liquid usually comes to light by check of a condition of motive oil. Examine an edge of the measuring probe and internal surfaces of a cover (covers) of cylinders on existence of traces of water and foaming of oil.

There are liquid losses

Liquid circulation is broken

Heater

The fan of a heater does not work

The fan of a heater does not work at one of steps

The heater is not switched off by the regulator

Too low power of heating

Noise in the field of the heater fan

Automatic Transmission (AT)

Procedures of diagnostics of an electronic control system of transmission and codes of malfunctions are provided in the Head Sistemy of electric equipment of the engine.

In view of complexity of a design of AT a component it is desirable to make diagnostics of its malfunctions and repairs in a workshop of car service or representative office of the company.

The common problems connected with functioning of the mechanism of switching

Make adjustment of draft of gear shifting (The head Automatic transmission).

Transmission revolves, switches hardly, publishes extraneous noises or does not provide the movement of the car at installation on one of lobbies or the reverse gear

Leak of transmission liquid takes place

Oil has brown color or smells of ashes

The Kickdown mode does not join by full pressing a pedal (the low gear does not join)

The engine is not started at any position of the selector or started in any situation except P and R

Transmission revolves, breakthroughs or noise at gear shifting. The car does not move at inclusion of the D or R modes

Bridges

Extraneous noises

Vibrations

Oil leak

Brake system

Before coming to final conclusion about existence of problems with the brake system make sure that tires are in satisfactory condition and are beefy with the required pressure, adjustment of angles of installation переднихколёс is not broken and the car is not loaded unevenly.

The increased brake pedal course

The pedal of a brake springs and fails

Decrease in effect of braking, pedal fails

Bad braking, despite big effort of pressing of a pedal

When braking the car takes away aside

Spontaneous braking

Brakes heat up during the movement

Brakes shiver

Brake shoes do not depart from a brake disk, the wheel is hardly turned by hand

Uneven wear of blocks

Wedge-shaped wear of brake shoes

Scratch of brakes

Brake pedal pulsation

The control lamp of ABS lights up during the movement

Suspension bracket and steering

The car takes away at the movement in one of the parties

Breakthroughs, pulling or vibrations take place

Excessive rocking of the car or "zaryvany" his nose on turns takes place or when braking

Too hardly the steering wheel rotates

The excessive side play of steering takes place

The system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel does not develop due effort

Excessive wear of protectors takes place (not in one some area)

Excessive wear of protectors on an outer edge takes place

Excessive wear of protectors on an inner edge takes place

Local wear of a protector takes place

Defects of brushes of a screen wiper

Slipping

In the field of cleaning the water remains gather in drops at once

The brush clears unilaterally - in one party well, in another is not present

Crude surfaces

Defects of tires

Strong wear of the tire on both parties of a working surface

Strong wear of the tire in the middle of a working surface, on all circle

Uneven wear of a protector

Uneven wear in the middle of a protector

Strong wear of certain places in the middle of a working surface

Sawtooth wear of a protector. Often together with a rupture of a fabric basis which is not visible outside

Rubber uvulas on side edges of a protector

Formation of agnails on one party of a protector of a forward wheel

Ruptures of a cord. At first are visible only from within

Unilaterally worn-out working surface