1.5. Technology of service, tool and equipment of a workplace

There are several techniques of performing procedures of maintenance and car repairs on which the reader will find references in the text of the present manual. Following to the offered instructions will make work of the amateur mechanic of more effective, will allow to organize in the best way and to qualitatively perform various technical procedures and will be the key to full-measured performance of all necessary works.

Fixture - the general information

Fixture are called nuts, bolts, hairpins and screws serving for connection among themselves of two or more details. During the work with elements of fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any carving fixture this or that type of the kontryashchy and stopping devices is applied. It can be lock washers, lock-nuts, lock tags or the special fixing sealant for threaded connections. All used fixture has to be absolutely pure and direct, with an undisturbed carving and not rounded corners of turnkey six-sided heads. It is necessary to take for the rule without fail to make replacement of the damaged fixture elements. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to reuse as at an otdavaniye lose the kontryashchy properties and at assembly always have to be replaced.

The "stuck" fixture for the purpose of simplification of unscrewing and in order to avoid damages before an otdavaniye has to be processed by the special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use turpentine which is convenient for putting from a special small canister with a long nose for this purpose. After wetting of fixture by the getting structure, it is necessary to give to means within several minutes properly to impregnate the oxidized contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down by a chisel, is cut by a hacksaw or removed by means of a special gaykolom.

When cutting a head of a bolt or oblamyvaniya of a hairpin on assembly the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of a special extractor. Most auto repair shops can undertake performance by this, as well as others (for example, restoration of the stripped thread in carving openings), repair procedures.

Flat and lock washers at assembly have to be established always into place in the original provisions. The damaged washers are subject to replacement without fail. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example, aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic of the fixed detail it is always necessary to establish flat washers.

Sizes and classes of durability of fixture

For many reasons manufacturers of cars use metric fixture more and more widely. However, it is important to know a difference between this (more universal) fixture and the SAE standard fixture used sometimes (or American). Despite external similarity, elements of these two types of fixture are not interchangeable.

All bolts as SAE standard, and metric, are classified by diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the bolt of the SAE 1/2 standard -  13 x 1 has a half of inch in the diameter, 13 rounds of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch.

Sizes/marking of a class of durability of standard (SAE and USS) bolts

G - marking of a class of durability
L - length (in inches)
T - a carving step (quantity of rounds on inch)
D - nominal diameter (in inches)

The metric bolt of M12 —  1.75 x 25 has diameter of 12 mm, a carving step (distance between the next rounds) 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm.

Sizes/marking of a class of durability of metric bolts

P - durability class
L - length (in mm)
T - a carving step (distance between the next rounds in mm)
D - nominal diameter (in mm)

Both bolts are externally almost identical, however are not interchangeable.

In addition to the listed signs, both metric bolts, and bolts of the SAE standard can be identified visually by survey of a head. For a start, the distance between lyska of shlits of a head of a metric bolt is measured in millimeters whereas at American - in inches (the same is fair also for nuts). As a result, the wrench of the SAE standard does not suit for use with metric fixture and vice versa. Besides, on heads of the most part of bolts of the SAE standard usually there are radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of tightening (durability degree) of a bolt. The more the quantity of notches, the are higher admissible effort (on cars bolts of a class of durability from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code. Figures of a code are usually cast also on a bolt head (on cars bolts of classes of durability 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9 are usually applied).

Marking of a class of durability of bolts

above — - standard / SAE/USS
below — metric

Also, on durability class tags, it is possible to distinguish class SAE nuts from metric. Dot tags, proshtampovyvayemy on one of face surfaces while marking of metric nuts is made by means of, besides, digital code are applied to identification of a class of durability of standard nuts. The more the quantity points/value of a digital code, the is higher admissible effort of tightening of a nut.

Marking of a class of durability of standard six-sided nuts

Six-sided nut
Class of durability 5
Identification of a class - Three points

Six-sided nut
Class of durability 8
Identification of a class — Six points

Marking of a class of durability of metric six-sided nuts

Six-sided nut
Class of durability 9
Identification of a class — Arab 9

Six-sided nut
Class of durability 10
Identification of a class - Arab 10

End faces of metric hairpins are also marked according to a class of their durability. The digital code whereas on smaller have marking in the form of geometrical figures is applied on large hairpins.

Marking of a class of durability of metric hairpins

1 - Class of durability 10.9
2 - Class of durability 9.8
3 - Class of durability 8.8

It is necessary to notice that a considerable part of fixture, in particular the class of durability from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case the only way of difference of the American fixture from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or comparison of rounds with rounds of unambiguously identified element.

It is necessary to remember that under classification of SAE only small fixture gets. Larger elements with not metric carving is fixture of the American standard (USS).

As fixture of the same geometrical size (both standard, and metric) can have various classes of durability, when replacing bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay special attention to compliance of the class of durability established new elements removed on durability class.

Technique and order of tightening of threaded connections

Tightening of the most part of threaded connections should be made with the efforts determined by requirements of the Specifications provided in the beginning of each Chapter of the present manual (it is necessary to understand the torque enclosed to it as effort of tightening of fixture). Tightening with excessive effort can lead to violation of integrity of fixture whereas the nedotyagivaniye leads it to unreliability of a joint of the interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on material of which they are made and diameter of a carving part, usually have strictly certain admissible efforts of tightening, many of which as it was already mentioned above, are given in Specifications at the beginning of each Chapter. Strictly adhere to the provided recommendations about efforts of tightening of fixture used on the car. For tightening of fixture which is not mentioned in Specifications it is necessary to use the map of admissible torques given below. The values given in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture allows tightening with big effort), besides, it is meant that tightening dry (with an ungreased carving) fixture screwed in a steel or cast (not aluminum) detail is made.

Metric carvings


9—12 N • m


19—28 N • m


38—54 N • m


68-96 N of m


109-154 N of m

Pipe carvings


7—10 N • m


17—24 N • m


30—44 N • m


34-47 N of m

Carvings of American

1/4 20

9—12 N • m

5/16 18

17—24 N • m

5/16 24

19—27 N • m

3/8 16

30-43 N of m

3/8 24

37-51 N of m

7/16 24

55—74 N • m

7/16 20

55—81 N • m

1/2 13

75-108 N of m

Fixture located on perimeter of any component (such as bolts of a head of cylinders, the pallet of a case and various covers) in order to avoid deformation of a detail has to be given and drag on in strictly certain order. The order of tightening and an otdavaniye of such fixture is given in the text of the corresponding Heads of the Management, and also on сопр. illustrations. If the special order is not stipulated, then in order to avoid deformation of a component, it is necessary to adhere to the instructions given below.

At the first stage all bolts / nuts have to be tightened by hand. Further, each of fixture elements in turn reaches on one whole revolution, and transition from one bolt / nut to another has to be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first element, it is necessary to repeat the procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half-turn. Continue implementation of the procedure, holding out each element now on a quarter of a turn for one approach until all of them are not tightened with the required effort. At an otdavaniye of fixture it is necessary to work in a similar manner, but upside-down.

Dismantling of components

Dismantling of all components has to be carried out in such manner that at installation each detail could be established on the former place and the correct image. Try to remember characteristic external features of knot assembled, in case of need, you make landing marking of details which installation can be into place executed ambiguously (for example, the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft, etc.). Placement of the removed details on a pure working surface in that order in what their removal was made will be the good idea. Useful will be also a drawing up the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photography of the sorted component.

At an otdavaniye of fixture try to make marking of its initial situation on assembly. Often, installation of fixture and washers on the former place right after removal of the corresponding detail allows to avoid confusion at assembly. In the absence of such opportunity, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose the box broken into sections and appropriately marked, or just on the separate marked boxes. Such approach is especially useful during the work with the components consisting of a set of fine details such as carburetor, generator, valvate mechanism, dashboard or elements of a decorative upholstery of salon.

At a detachment of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to pay attention to marking of wires or plaits by means of an adhesive tape with the digital or alphabetic code applied on it.

Pro-masonry surfaces

On all cars sealing laying is applied to sealing of the place of a joint of the interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serves for prevention of leak of oils and other working liquids and maintenance in assembly of the increased pressure/depression.

Often such laying before installation becomes covered by a liquid or pastelike sealing compound (sealant). Sometimes, eventually, or under the influence of the increased temperatures or pressure there is so strong "prikipaniye" of the interfaced surfaces to each other that the partition of details becomes an exigeant task. With many cases successful separation of the "stuck" components is helped by their obstukivaniye outside on joint perimeter the hammer with soft brisk. It is possible to use for this purpose as well the ordinary hammer, striking blows through a wooden or plastic pro-rate. It is not necessary to make an obstukivaniye of cast cases and components, sensitive to concussion. At emergence of such difficulties always first of all check whether all fixture is removed.

Avoid a podrychazhivaniye of details by means of the screw-driver or mount entered into the area of a joint as at the same time the interfaced surfaces can be easily damaged that will lead further to development of leaks. If it is not possible to avoid a podrychazhivaniye of the "stuck" assembly elements, use for this purpose the handle from old wit, but you remember that all formed chips have to be carefully removed both from the interfaced surfaces, and from internal cavities of components of the dismembered knot.

After division of details their interfaced surfaces have to be smoothed carefully out with application of a scraper for removal of traces of material of old laying. The hardened fragments can be previously softened by means of rust solvent or the special chemical composition. As a scraper in this case the piece of a copper tube with the flattened-out and pointed end can be used. The remains of some laying easily can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, regardless of the applied method, the interfaced surfaces as a result of processing have to become absolutely pure and dry. If for any reason the interfaced surface was damaged, before assembly of knot fill defects with pro-masonry sealant. In most cases it is necessary to use noncongealable (or not up to the end stiffening) sealant.

Councils for removal of hoses

If your car is equipped with the air conditioning system, do not disconnect from system components any hoses at all until the path is not discharged at car repair shop by the specialist in air conditioning systems.

Measures of precautions which should be observed at removal of hoses are very close to the measures shown at dismantle of laying. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes on which the ends of hoses as it can be the reason of development of leaks stretch.

In a special measure the last requirement belongs to the procedure of removal of hoses of a radiator. Owing to various chemical reactions happening in a path of the cooling system often occurs<прикипание> rubbers of hoses to the surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For removal of a hose first of all weaken a collar of its fastening it. Then nippers grasp a hose near a collar and begin to rotate it on the union / a connecting branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue to act in the stated manner before liberation of a hose, then remove a hose from the union.

A small amount of the silicone or other lubricant entered into a gap between the union and a hose will allow to save forces. Before installation of a hose grease its internal surface, adjacent to an end face, and also the external surface of the union with solution of soap water or a small amount of silicone lubricant.

As the last resort, or in case of unambiguous need of replacement of a hose by the new, put-on the union end of a hose can be knifed and then is separated from the surface of the union. At the same time try not to damage an edge union metal / a connecting branch pipe.

In case of damage of a hose collar, replace it with new. Collars of the twisted type usually weaken over time therefore, regardless of a state, it is better to replace them more practical screw or worm.


Selection of the high-quality tool is one of fundamental requirements for everyone who plans independent performing procedures of maintenance or car repairs. At first sight, the expenses connected with acquisition of the required set of tools can seem incommensurably big, however at their comparison with the expenses interfaced to performing procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs at car repair shop will appear quite reasonable.

For the purpose of systematization of approach to the choice necessary at repair and service of the car of the tool three lists of tools which are conditionally entitled as are given below: <Набор инструментов для текущего обслуживания и минимального ремонта> <Набор инструментов для общего и капитального ремонта> and "The special tool". The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out mechanical works have to begin with performing procedures, the tools limited to application from the first list, improving at the same time skills and gradually expanding the range of the activity. In process of acquisition of skills, it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, gradually filling up the range of the held tools. After a while the gained experience will allow to pass to performance of more complex works demanding use of the tool from the second list (for the general and capital repairs of the car). When qualification of the performer reaches rather high level and will allow to save considerable means on independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.

Tool kit on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs

The list given below includes a minimum of units of the tools necessary for performing procedures of routine maintenance and insignificant car repairs. Authors of the present manual recommend to begin with acquisition of a set of the combined wrenches (from ordinary Rozhkova with a head on one end and with cap on another). Despite the increased cost of this set in comparison with the cost of set of ordinary Rozhkov of keys, expense will be justified since such keys have advantages of both types.

  • Set of the combined keys from 8 to 19 mm
  • Adjustable spanner (to 35 mm)
  • Candle key with a rubber insert (petrol models)
  • The tool for adjustment of a candle gap (petrol models)
  • Set of measuring probes
  • Nippelny key for pumping of brakes
  • Screw-drivers:
  • The combined flat-nose pliers
  • Hacksaw with a set of cloths
  • The pump for a rating of tires
  • The manometer for measurement of pressure in tires
  • Lubricant gun (syringe)
  • Canister under oil
  • Fine-grained emery paper
  • Wire brush
  • The tool for cleaning of plugs and contacts of wires of the battery
  • Key for removal of an oil filter
  • Funnel (average size)
  • Props for fixing of the car in the lifted state (2)
  • Drain capacity
  • If procedures of routine maintenance include carrying out basic adjustments, also acquisition of a qualitative stroboscope and the combined tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker is required. In spite of the fact that these tools are a part of the list of special tools, the mention of them is given in a type of absolute necessity of their application for carrying out the high-quality control of ignition of the engine which is a part of procedures of routine maintenance of the car here.

    Tool kit for the general and capital repairs of the car

    This tool is absolutely necessary when carrying out any operations on repair of the engine of the car and is offered in addition to the first list. The present list included a complete set of replaceable face heads. At the considerable cost, a set of replaceable heads brings invaluable benefit, thanks to the universality and convenience in the address, in particular in combination with the drives of various type which are included in the package. It is recommended to give preference to drives with a section of 1/2 inches (but not 3/8 inches) since they, though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type of dynamometer keys (ideally, the good mechanic has to have both types of drives at the order). Cheaper alternative to a set of replaceable face heads is a set of tubular keys.

  • Set of replaceable face heads (including type heads) (or tubular keys), the sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
  • The ratchet reversive drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
  •  Collar 250 mm long
  • The cardan drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
  • Dynamometer key (with the drive of the same size, as for replaceable face heads)
  • Самоконтрящиеся nippers
  • The hammer with round brisk (about 230 g)
  • The hammer with soft brisk (plastic or rubber)
  • Screw-drivers:
  • Clamping pincers
  • Flat-nose pliers:
  • Chisel on 25 mm
  • The scraper (made from the copper tube which is flattened out and pointed since one end)
  • Skrayber (chertilka)
  • Center punch
  • Small beards with a thin sting (1.6, 3.2, 4.8 mm)
  • Set of hose clips
  • Set for pumping of brakes
  • Set of drills
  • Steel line / measuring instrument of planeness
  • Set of prutkovy keys hexagons (Allen) (for heads with an internal hexagon)
  • Set of files
  • Wire brush (big)
  • Second set of props
  • Jack (hydraulic or scissors type)
  • Carrying with the closed lamp shade
  • One more constantly required tool is the electric drill with the boss on to 9.5 mm with a set of high quality drills.

    Special tool

    The tools which are adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding when using implementation of instructions of manufacturers get to this category. If the field of activity of the amateur mechanic does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool will become bad investment of capital - it will be more reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends, or to hire as required in workshops of car service.

    Only those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on service centers of representative offices of the companies manufacturers of cars are entered in the list. Sometimes in the text of the Management the reader will face links to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method allowing to avoid obligatory use of the remote tool. In case it is impossible to avoid use of the special tool, and its acquisition in use is problematic, performance of the corresponding works will be more correct to be entrusted specialists of car service.

  • The tool for compression of valvate springs
  • The tool for grinding in of valves
  • Device for a clearing of flutes of piston rings
  • The tool for a staving of piston rings
  • The tool for installation of piston rings
  • The measuring instrument of extent of compression of gases in cylinders (компрессометр)
  • Vertical drill for processing of edges of cylinders
  • Hon for processing of mirrors of cylinders
  • Measuring instrument of diameter of cylinders
  • Micrometer (micrometers) and/or dial caliper
  • The tool for centering of a clutch plate
  • Extractor of spherical hinges
  • Stripper of universal type
  • Impact driver
  • Set of the dial measuring instrument
  • Stroboscope (with the inductive sensor)
  • The manual combined pump (vacuum/delivery)
  • Set of taps and lerok
  • The tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker
  • Universal tester for electric measurements
  • Lifting rigging
  • The tool for removal/installation of brake springs
  • Cart (podkatny) jack
  • Micrometer with a set from nozzles

    The dial measuring instrument with a set of clamps and nozzles

    Dial / vernier caliper

    The vacuum pump with the manual drive


    The compression measuring instrument with a nozzle for installation in candle openings

    Stripper for removal of a damper / a steering wheel

    Stripper of general purpose

    The tool for removal of hydraulic pushers

    The tool for compression of valvate springs

    The tool for compression of valvate springs

    Vertical drill for removal of step wear in the cylinder

    Device for a clearing of flutes of piston rings

    The tool for removal / installation of piston rings

    The tool for a staving of piston rings

    Hon for processing of mirrors of cylinders

    The tool for removal of cups of the directing springs of brake boots

    Hon for processing of brake cylinders

    The tool for centering of clutch plates

    Set of taps and lerok

    Acquisition of the tool

    The beginner mechanic can be offered several practical advice in respect of acquisition of the tool necessary for performing procedures of service and car repairs. By preparation for holding procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to buy the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of more large-scale works, it is simpler and more reliable to buy a set of the modern tool in shop of retail network. Acquisition of a set usually costs a little cheaper individual purchases and often is followed by the appendix in a toolbox set. Further, for expansion of the range, separate tools, additional sets and a toolbox of the bigger size can be bought in addition. Gradual expansion of a set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in the choice of really necessary tools.

    Specialized tool shops are the only source of acquisition of some special tools. Regardless of the choice of a source, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at the choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as the term of their service for certain will be short. The expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool as a result will be incomparably more considerable, than costs of single acquisition of qualitative goods.

    Care of the tool and its storage

    The good tool is valuable investment of capital therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After use of the tool, before folding to the place of storage, always carefully wipe its surface with pure dry rags, deleting traces of dirt, lubricant and the remains of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered. After completion of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car for existence of the forgotten tool.

    For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers, etc., the tool comb fixed in the convenient place on a garage wall is ideal. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The precision measuring tool has to be stored in inaccessible to impact of corrosion, dry and pure places.

    Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of a working surface of the tool. A shock part quickly of the hammer in the course of use is subject to a rasklepyvaniye, screw-drivers lose sharpening of the stings over time. You do not stint to find a little time and attention to that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove rasklepa and to put the cutting edges in order. It is irreversible the worn-out or damaged tool in due time replace.

    At careful leaving the tool is capable to serve belief and the truth during very long term.

    Workplace equipment

    Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to remember the workplace equipment. If carrying out more serious work, than simple maintenance of the vehicle is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable working platform.

    It is necessary to recognize that many motorists are forced to make dismantle of the engine and other similar works not in the conditions of a garage or a workshop. However anyway the important requirement is existence of a roof or awning.

    Whenever possible, any procedures for dismantling of parts of systems of the car have to be made on a pure workbench with a plain working surface, or a strong table of convenient height. The workbench has to be surely equipped with a vice with disclosure of sponges to 100 mm and with soft overlays for sponges.
    As it was already mentioned above, on the working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, hard putties, paints and varnishes, etc. has to be equipped.

    It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electric drill, therefore, the working platform has to be equipped with the power supply for its connection. Existence of a drill with the boss to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills considerably will facilitate holding many procedures.

    At last, in a workplace always there has to be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся rags, intended for collecting the spilled liquids and rubbing of the working platform, the tool and details of the car.

    The fulfilled working liquids should be handed over in the centers for utilization in a tight container.

    Never you perform any works on the barefaced painted surface of body panels of the car, use protective overlays for wings, or, at the worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.